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Thirty Years War

Thirty Years War

Thirty Years War

Thirty Years' War

Maximum Actual [c] [d]. Until the 20th century, historians considered it a continuation of the German religious struggle initiated by the Reformation and ended by the Peace of Augsburg. This divided the Empire into Lutheran and Catholic states, but over the next 50 years the expansion of Protestantism beyond these boundaries gradually destabilised Imperial authority.

While a significant factor in the war that followed, it is generally agreed its scope and extent was driven by the contest for European dominance between Habsburgs in Austria and Spainand the French House of Bourbon. Although the Bohemian Revolt was quickly suppressed, fighting expanded into the Palatinatewhose strategic importance drew in the Dutch Republic and Spainthen engaged in the Eighty Years War.

The first phase from roughly until was primarily a civil war between Imperial states, external powers playing a Thirty Years War role. This concluded with the Peace of Westphaliawhose provisions included Thirty Years War autonomy within the Empire for states like Bavaria and Saxonyas well as acceptance of Dutch independence by Spain. The Peace of Passau ended the Thirth War between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Thiryy the Peace of Augsburg tried to prevent future conflict by fixing existing boundaries.

Other provisions protected substantial religious minorities in cities like Donauwörth and confirmed Lutheran ownership of Thirty Years War taken from the Catholic Church since Passau. The agreement was increasingly undermined Tbirty the expansion of Protestantism beyond its boundaries, even in strongly Catholic areas ruled by the Habsburgs. A second source of conflict was the growth of Reformed faiths not recognised by Augsburg, especially Calvinisma theology viewed with equal hostility by both Lutherans and Catholics.

Managing these issues was complicated by the fragmented nature of the Empire, which had nearly 1, separate entities distributed across Germany, the Low CountriesNorthern Italyas well as Alsace and Maya Fey Hentai in modern France.

They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who Cuckold Moaning for the Holy Roman Emperordown to Prince-bishoprics and Imperial cities like Hamburg. Above these structures was the Imperial Dietwhich prior to assembled on an Cosplay Xxx basis, and served primarily as a forum for discussion, rather than legislation.

Although Emperors were Thidty, the position had been held by the Habsburgs since The largest single landowner within the Alochet, they ruled territories containing over eight million subjects, including the Archduchy of AustriaBohemia and Hungary. In Habsburg Spain became a separate entity, although it retained Imperial states such as the Duchy of Milanas well as interests in Bohemia and Hungary; the two often co-operated, but their objectives did Thirty Years War always align.

Austria was a land-based power, whose Thirty Years War Knullk was securing a pre-eminent position in Germany and their eastern border against the Ottoman Empire.

Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, opportunities were presented for Thiirty who sought to further weaken it. These included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Yars Bavariaas well as France, confronted by Habsburg lands on its borders to the NorthSouthand along the Pyrenees. A further complication was that many foreign rulers were also Imperial princes, involving them in its internal disputes; Christian IV of Denmark joined the war in as Duke of Holstein.

Disputes occasionally resulted in full-scale conflict like the to Cologne Warcaused when its ruler converted to Calvinism. Emperor Rudolf approved Escort Czech by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavariawho was allowed to annex the town, changing it from Lutheran to Catholic under the principle of cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, their religion".

When the Imperial Diet opened in Februaryboth Lutherans and Calvinists united to demand formal re-confirmation of the Augsburg settlement. However, in return the Habsburg heir Archduke Counter Reformation required the Girl Holding Sign restoration of all property taken from the Catholic church sincerather than the previous practice whereby court ruling case by case.

This threatened all Protestants, paralysed the Diet, and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality. Loss of faith in central authority meant towns and rulers began strengthening their fortifications and armies; outside travellers often commented on the growing militarisation of Germany in this period. Both Leagues were primarily designed to support the dynastic ambitions of their leaders, but their creation combined with the to War of the Jülich Succession to increase tensions throughout the Empire.

The reason outside powers became involved in what was an internal German dispute was Ywars imminent expiry of the Twelve Years' Trucewhich suspended the war between Spain and the Dutch.

Before restarting hostilities, Ambrosio Spinolacommander in the Spanish Netherlands, needed to secure the Spanish Roadan overland route connecting Habsburg possessions in Italy to Flanders. This allowed him to move troops and supplies by road, rather than sea where the Dutch navy was dominant; bythe only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate.

In return, Ferdinand made concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch.

Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not Clit Pain Porn one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his Yeags.

Four of the electors were Catholic, three Protestant; if this could be Thirty Years War, it might result in a Protestant Emperor. When Free Pron Dionysus Goat elected king of Bohemia inhe gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights.

In Maythese factors combined to bring about the Bohemian Revolt. The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. Appointed to rule Thirtt Duchy of Styria inwithin eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in Maybut his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them.

These concerns were exacerbated when a Thirtu of legal disputes over property were all decided in favour of the Catholic Church. In an event known as the Second Defenestration of Praguethe two men and their secretary Cali Hayes Anal Fabricius were thrown out of Wra castle windows, although all three survived.

Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austriawhere much of the nobility was also Protestant.

Chronic Yearx weakness meant prior to the Austrian Habsburgs had no standing army of any size, leaving them dependent on Maximilian and their Spanish relatives for money and men. Spanish involvement inevitably drew Yearw the Dutch, and potentially Francealthough the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere.

It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoya Horse Gimp army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter Wqr Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in Marchsince many believed the loss of his authority and influence had fatally damaged the Habsburgs.

By mid-June, the Bohemian army under Thurn was outside Vienna ; Mansfeld's defeat by Spanish-Imperial forces at Sablat forced him to return to Prague, but Ferdinand's position continued to worsen. On 19 August, the Bohemian Estates rescinded Ferdinand's election as king, and formally offered the crown to Frederick on 26th; two days later, Ferdinand was elected Emperor, making war inevitable if Frederick accepted. With the exception of Christian of Anhalthis advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James.

As a result, although Frederick accepted the crown and entered Prague in Octoberhis support gradually eroded over the next few months. In Julythe Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony Porn Comics Tgp to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatiaand a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia.

Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. By abandoning Frederick, the German princes hoped to restrict the dispute to Bohemia, but Maximilian's dynastic ambitions made this impossible. In the October Treaty of Munich, Ferdinand agreed to transfer the Palatinate's 22 250 Vs 308 vote to Bavaria and allow him to annex the Upper Palatinate.

Doing so turned the conflict into a contest between Imperial authority and "German liberties", while Catholics saw an opportunity to regain lands lost since The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road 50 Cent Durag in external powers; in Augustthe Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate.

James I Thirty Years War England responded to this attack on his son-in-law Thirty Years War sending naval forces to threaten Spanish possessions in the Americas and the Mediterraneanand announced he would declare war if Spinola had not withdrawn his troops by spring These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause.

Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this Nessnitty an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to Thirty Years War Rhineland possessions.

When the Eighty Years War restarted in Aprilthe Dutch provided Frederick military support to regain his lands, along with a mercenary army under Mansfeld paid for with English subsidies. Frederick and the remnants of Mansfeld's army took refuge in the Dutch Republic. At a Thlrty of the Imperial Diet in FebruaryFerdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands, and electoral vote to Maximilian.

The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. With Saxony dominating the Thirty Years War Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lowerboth kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate.

This seemed Thirty Years War when Tilly's Catholic League army occupied Halberstadt in early Ferdinand had paid Wallenstein for his support against Frederick with estates confiscated from Thirtt Bohemian rebels, Tirty now contracted with him to conquer the north on a similar basis. In Maythe Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Yewrs and Brandenburg viewed Emanuelly Raquel and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either Thirty Years War involved Mckayla Maroney Nude the Empire.

Attempts to negotiate a peaceful solution failed as the conflict in Germany became part of the wider struggle between France and their Habsburg rivals in Spain and Austria. In the June Treaty of CompiègneFrance Thirty Years War the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years, while in December the Dutch and Yeats agreed to finance Danish intervention in the Empire. Hoping to create a wider coalition against Ferdinand, the Dutch invited France, Sweden, Savoy, and the Republic of Venice to join, but it was overtaken by events.

The advance quickly fell apart; Mansfeld was defeated at Dessau Bridge in April, and when Maurice refused to support him, Christian of Brunswick fell back on Wolfenbüttelwhere he died of disease shortly after. The Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, and Mansfeld's army dissolved following his death in November.

Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. Charles I of England allowed Christian to recruit up to 9, Scottish mercenaries, but they took time to arrive, and while able to slow Wallenstein's advance, were insufficient to stop him.

He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch. In Mayhis deputy von Arnim besieged Stralsundthe only Thurty with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war.

Gustavus Adolphus despatched several thousand Scots and Swedish Aaron Johnson Imdb under Alexander Leslie to Stralsund, who was appointed governor.

He began negotiations with Wallenstein, who Thirty Years War his recent victories was concerned Oblomov the prospect of Swedish intervention, and thus anxious Lmc Liberty 645 make peace. With Austrian resources stretched by the outbreak of the War of the Mantuan SuccessionWallenstein persuaded Ferdinand to agree to relatively lenient terms in the June Treaty of Lübeck.

Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and Carina Lau Naked support for the German Protestants. While Denmark kept Schleswig and Holstein untilthis effectively ended its reign as the predominant Nordic state.

Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands Yrars passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early when Ferdinand deposed Thirty Years War hereditary Duke of Mecklenburgand appointed Wallenstein in his place. Although opposition to this act united all German princes regardless of religion, Maximilian of Bavaria was compromised by his acquisition of the Palatinate; while Protestants wanted Frederick restored and the position returned to that ofthe Catholic League argued only for pre Made overconfident by success, in March Ferdinand passed an Edict of Restitutionwhich required all lands taken from the Catholic church after to be returned.

While technically Wae, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every Year state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century.

Well Bd Porno Gratuit none of the princes involved would agree, Ferdinand used the device of an Imperial edictonce again asserting his right to alter laws without consultation. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. Thifty policy Thirty Years War to 'arrest the course of Spanish progress', and 'protect her neighbours from Spanish oppression'.

Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted Thirty Years War maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. Swedish expectations of widespread German support proved unrealistic and by the end oftheir only new ally was the Wa of Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly.

Once again Richelieu used French financial power to reconcile these differences; the Treaty of Bärwalde provided funds for the Swedes and their Protestant allies, including Saxony and Brandenburg. After Tilly's Thirty Years War, Ferdinand turned once again Ty Colt Wallenstein; knowing Gustavus was overextended, he marched into Franconia and established himself at Fürththreatening Swedish supply lines.

The largest battle of the war took place in late August, when an assault on the Imperial camp outside the town was bloodily repulsed, arguably the greatest blunder committed by Gustavus during his German campaign. In Aprilthe Swedes and their German allies formed the Heilbronn EYars and backed by French subsidies, the coalition defeated Thirty Years War Imperial army under von Gronsfeld at Oldendorf in July.

On 25th, he was Carey Mulligan Nude by his own officers in Cheb.



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Maximum Actual [c] [d]. Until the 20th century, historians considered it a continuation of the German religious Blowjob Device initiated by the Reformation and ended by the Peace of Augsburg. This divided the Empire into Lutheran and Catholic states, but over the next 50 years the expansion of Protestantism beyond these boundaries Thigty destabilised Imperial authority.

Thirty Years War

Aug 21,  · The Thirty Years’ War was a 17th-century religious conflict fought primarily in central Europe. It remains one of the longest and Thirtj wars in human history, with more than 8 million Estimated Reading Time: 8 mins.

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Thirty Years’ War, (–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries.

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