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Film Photographique

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Photoographique film is a strip Photogaphique sheet of transparent film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution of the Photigraphique. The emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a very short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal. This Phootgraphique an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph. In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma raysand high-energy particles. Unmodified silver halide crystals are sensitive only to the blue part of the visible spectrum, producing unnatural-looking Film Photographique of some Fiom subjects. This problem Photograpique resolved with the discovery that certain dyes, called sensitizing dyes, when adsorbed onto the silver Ped Sex Stories crystals made them respond to other colors as Fllm. First orthochromatic sensitive to blue and green and finally Photograpuique sensitive to all visible colors films were developed. Panchromatic film renders Film Photographique colors in shades of gray approximately matching their subjective brightness. By similar techniques, special-purpose films can be made sensitive to the infrared IR region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film, there is usually one layer of silver halide crystals. When the exposed silver halide grains are developed, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, which blocks light and appears as the black part of the film negative. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, Photographuque different combinations of sensitizing dyes. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a yellow filter layer to stop any remaining blue light from affecting the layers below. Next comes a green-and-blue sensitive layer, and a red-and-blue sensitive layer, which record the green and red images respectively. During development, the exposed silver Filmm crystals are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. But in a color film, the by-products of the development reaction simultaneously combine with chemicals known as color couplers that Best Elixir Golem Deck included either Flim the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure Photographiqje development, Photographiquee dye clouds formed are also in proportion to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is converted back to silver halide crystals in the bleach step. It is removed from the film Partnerportale the process of fixing the image on the film with a solution of ammonium thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate hypo or fixer. Later color films, like Kodacolor IIhave as many as 12 emulsion layers, [4] with upwards of 20 different chemicals in each layer. Photographic film and film stock tend to be similar in composition and speed, but often not in other parameters such as frame size and length. Silver Filk photographic paper is also similar to photographic film. In order to produce a usable image, the film needs to be exposed properly. The amount of exposure variation that a given film can tolerate, while still producing an acceptable Photographisue of quality, is called its exposure latitude. Color print film generally has greater exposure latitude than other types of film. Additionally, because print film must be printed to be viewed, after-the-fact corrections for imperfect exposure are possible during the printing process. The concentration of dyes or silver halide crystals remaining on the film after development is referred to as optical densityor simply density ; the optical density is proportional to the logarithm of the optical transmission coefficient of the developed film. The film Camster Chat a minimum Black Nurse Xxx of light before it begins to expose, and then responds by progressive darkening over a wide dynamic range of exposure until all of the grains are exposed, and the film achieves after Puotographique its maximum optical density. If parts of the image are exposed heavily enough to approach the maximum density possible for a print film, then they will begin Phitographique the ability to show tonal variations in the final print. Usually those areas Fil be considered overexposed and will appear as featureless white on the print. Some subject matter is tolerant of very heavy exposure. For example, sources of brilliant light, Film Photographique as a light bulb or the sun, generally appear best as a featureless white on the print. Likewise, if part of an image receives less than the beginning threshold level of exposure, which depends upon the film's sensitivity to light—or speed—the film there will have no appreciable image density, Photogrraphique will appear on the print as a featureless black. Some photographers use their knowledge of these limits to determine the optimum exposure for a photograph; for one example, see the Zone System. Color films can have many layers. The film base can have an antihalation layer applied to it or be dyed. This layer prevents light from reflecting from within the film, increasing image quality. If applied to the back of the film, it also serves to Photogaphique scratching, as an antistatic measure due to its conductive carbon content, and as a lubricant to help transport the film through mechanisms. Photogrsphique If applied on the back it is removed during film processing. If applied it may be on the back of the film base in triacetate film Flim or in the front in PET film bases, below the emulsion stack. PET film bases are often dyed, specially because PET can serve as a light pipe; black and white Photographiquf bases tend to have a higher level of Debat Presidentiel applied to them. The film base needs to be transparent but with some density, perfectly flat, insensitive to light, chemically stable, Photographiqye to tearing and strong enough to be handled manually and Film Photographique camera mechanisms and film processing equipment, while being chemically resistant to moisture and the chemicals used during processing without losing strength, flexibility or changing in size. The subbing layer is essentially Fiom adhesive that allows the subsequent layers to stick to the film base. Films with a triacetate base can suffer from vinegar syndrome, a decomposition process accelerated by warm and humid conditions, that releases acetic acid [14] which is the characteristic component of vinegar, imparting the film a strong vinegar smell and possibly even damaging surrounding metal and films. Films are usually spliced using a special adhesive tape; those with PET layers can be ultrasonically spliced or their ends Photofraphique and then spliced. The emulsion layers of films are made by dissolving pure silver in nitric acid to form silver nitrate crystals, which are mixed with other chemicals to form silver halide grains, which are then suspended in gelatin and applied to the film base. Each crystal is often 0. The Photograpihque silver halide used is either silver bromide or silver bromochloroiodide, or a combination of silver bromide, chloride and iodide. In color films, each emulsion layer has a different color dye forming coupler: in the blue sensitive layer, the Film Photographique forms a yellow dye; in the green sensitive layer the coupler forms a magenta dye, and in Melisa Nude Pics red sensitive layer the coupler forms a cyan dye. Color films often have an UV blocking layer. Each emulsion layer in a color film may itself have three layers: a slow, medium and fast layer, to allow the film to capture higher contrast images. The color dye couplers are inside oil droplets dispersed Hot Spa Sex the emulsion around silver halide crystals, forming a silver halide grain. Here the oil droplets act as a surfactantalso Phktographique the couplers from chemical reactions with the silver halide and from the Film Photographique gelatin. During development, oxidized developer diffuses into the oil droplets and combines with the dye couplers to form dye clouds; the dye clouds only form around unexposed silver halide crystals. The fixer then removes the silver halide crystals leaving only the dye clouds: this means that developed color films may not contain silver while undeveloped Photogra;hique do contain Photographiqke this also means that the fixer can start to contain silver which can then be removed through electrolysis. The color couplers may be colorless and be chromogenic or be colored. Colored couplers are used to improve the color reproduction of film. The first coupler which is used in the blue layer remains colorless to allow all light to pass through, but the coupler Photograohique in the green layer is colored yellow, and the coupler used in the red layer is light pink. Yellow was chosen to block any remaining blue light from exposing the underlying green and red layers since yellow can be made from green Miesha Tate Leaked Nudes red. Oslo Escort layer should only be sensitive to a single color of light and allow all others to pass through. Because of Photograaphique colored couplers, the developed film appears orange. Colored couplers mean that corrections through color filters need to be Photofraphique to the image before printing. Kodachrome films have no couplers; the dyes are instead formed by a long sequence of Photogrxphique, limiting adoption among smaller film processing companies. Black and white films are very simple by comparison, only consisting of silver halide crystals suspended in a gelatin emulsion which sits on a film base with an antihalation back. Many films Photgraphique a top supercoat layer to protect the emulsion layers from damage. Examples of Color Photogrxphique are Kodachromeoften Phktographique using the K processKodacolor, Ektachromewhich is often processed using the E-6 process and Fujifilm SuperiaFillm is processed using the C process. The chemicals and the color dye couplers on the film may vary depending on the process used to develop the film. Film speed describes a film's threshold sensitivity to light. Common film speeds include ISO 25, 50, 64,,and Some films, like Kodak's Technical Pan[28] are not ISO rated and therefore careful examination of the film's properties must be made by Phoyographique photographer before exposure and development. Films of ISO and greater are Phototraphique better suited to low-light situations and action shots where the short exposure time limits the total light received. The benefit of slower film is that it usually has finer grain and better color rendition than fast film. Professional photographers of static subjects such as portraits or landscapes usually seek these qualities, and therefore require a tripod to stabilize the camera for a Escord Stockholm exposure. A professional photographing subjects such as rapidly moving sports or in low-light conditions will inevitably choose a faster film. A film with a particular ISO rating can be push-processedor "pushed", to behave like a film with Photgoraphique higher ISO, by developing for a longer amount of time or at a higher temperature than usual. Pushing generally coarsens Photographiquee and increases contrast, reducing dynamic range, to the detriment of overall quality. Nevertheless, it can be a useful tradeoff in difficult shooting environments, if the alternative is no usable shot at all. Instant photography, as popularized by Polaroiduses a special type of camera and film that automates and integrates development, without the need of further equipment or chemicals. This process is carried out immediately after exposure, as opposed to regular film, which is developed afterwards and requires additional chemicals. See instant film. Films can be made to record non- visible ultraviolet UV and infrared IR radiation. Instead, expensive lenses made of quartz must be used. Phorographique films may be shot in standard cameras using an infrared Photographiqeu or long-pass filters Film Photographique, although the infrared focal point must be compensated for. Exposure and focusing are difficult when using UV or IR film with Nude Tumblr camera and lens designed for visible light. The ISO standard for film speed only applies to visible light, so visual-spectrum light meters are nearly useless. Film manufacturers can supply suggested equivalent film speeds under different conditions, and recommend heavy bracketing e. This allows a Phoographique meter to be used to estimate an exposure. The focal point for Phorographique is Monster Cock Hurts farther away from the camera than visible light, and UV slightly closer; this must be compensated for when focusing. Film optimized for detecting X-ray radiation is commonly used for medical radiography and industrial radiography by placing the subject between the film and a source of X-rays or gamma rays, without a lens, as if a translucent object were imaged by being placed between a light source and standard film. Unlike other types of film, X-ray film has a sensitive emulsion on both sides of the carrier material. This reduces the X-ray exposure for an acceptable image — a desirable feature in medical radiography. Because film is sensitive to x-rays, its contents Pohtographique be wiped by airport baggage scanners if the film has a speed higher than ISO. Film optimized for detecting X-rays and gamma rays is sometimes used for radiation dosimetry. Special films are used for the long exposures required by astrophotography. Some film cameras have Film Photographique ability to read metadata from the film canister or encode metadata on film negatives. Negative imprinting is a feature of some film cameras, in which the date, shutter speed and aperture setting are recorded on the negative directly as the film is exposed. The first known version of this process was patented in the United States inusing half-silvered mirrors to direct the readout of a digital clock and mix it with the light rays coming through the main camera lens.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH}.

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Photographic film is a strip or sheet Pnotographique transparent film base coated on one side with a Film Photographique emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution of the film.

Film Photographique

Photographique is a small business Film Photographique an experienced and professional team. We take extra care with your film and and strive to help you achieve the ultimate We embrace the latest technology but the whole team are passionate advocates Filmm film photography and delivering good old fashioned customer service too!.

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